Spain Explained

Cycle helmet laws in Spain

Last updated on September 13th, 2019 at 09:10 am.

When we first came to Spain, many years ago, it seemed to us that there was a kind of reckless disregard for ‘safety’ on the roads. Drinking and driving was not uncommon. Manoeuvres seemed to be made without warning and oblivious to other road users. And helmets in Spain, even for motorbikes, were almost non-existent.

You might feel that some of these features of driving in Spain have not changed. However, one thing certainly has, and that’s the use of helmets. It is now very rare to see a scooter or motorbike rider without the correct head gear. The police have been vigilant for a while for those ready to flout the laws and try their luck. Heavy fines now follow.

With motorbike and scooter riders safely clad, attention has now turned to the pushbike. A new transport law has brought in a number of new rules and regulations in Spain and cyclists are not exempt. However, when and where to wear your helmet has proved to be far more controversial for the bikes with pedals than it was for their noisier relatives.

The new Spanish law

In comparison to some other countries, Spain already has some quite restrictive laws when it comes to wearing a cycle helmet. In 2004 the compulsory wearing of a helmet was introduced for those cycling outside of urban areas. Much to the displeasure of some cycling groups, the law has remained, albeit infrequently enforced.  

With the new driving laws prepared in 2013 the intention had been to make existing laws even stricter by making helmet-wearing compulsory for everyone, everywhere. The proposals met with dismay from some quarters and many town halls made a case against the compulsory wearing of helmets in the city. Some of this opposition could be linked to the impact it might have on the public bicycle hire system that operates in some places.

Following this strong opposition, the section of the law requiring helmets   in city centres as well as outside, was removed. Instead, from the 9th May 2014, it became obligatory only for cyclists of 16 years old or less to wear a helmet at all times. The rest of the existing law stays the same.  Adults older than 16 must wear a helmet outside of city centres but are exempt during periods of excessive heat, on steep hills or if they are professional cyclists.

Will it save lives?

However, there is no universal agreement about just how beneficial wearing a helmet is for cyclists. In fact, many European countries such as the UK, Italy and France don’t require you to wear one at all.

A particularly good article that looks into the pros and cons of helmet wearing comes from the Times. As you might expect, top of the pros is that it can prevent a major head injury or death.

Arguments against include, giving a false sense of security and that a large number of cycle injuries come from being crushed rather than injuries to the head.

In some cases it is argued that safety is improved by increasing the number of cyclists and making roads more cycle friendly. Some feel that having to wear a helmet deters people from cycling at all and makes the environment generally more hostile to them.    

Some personal experience

And if you thought the police would be turning a blind eye, think again. There seems to be a current offensive to make sure cyclists are complying with the law. My son (22) was recently fined 80€ for not wearing his helmet on a stretch between two cycle paths on Orihuela Costa. The police were waiting at the only part of the road where the cyclists must leave the path. He wasn’t the only one to be fined.

As he points out, being a cyclist without a helmet puts only yourself at risk. In a country like Spain where it is very hot for significant parts of the year, wearing a helmet is particularly uncomfortable. If countries really want to increase the use of bicycles then making it even more difficult to ride in comfort cannot help.

Added to this, many people will borrow a helmet that may not fit well or may even impede their vision. In a clash with a car, a cyclist is very vulnerable – maintaining good vision and being alert is particularly important. Of course, anyone who has had a close shave and was saved by their helmet will want to argue with this. Rightly so. We invite your comments.

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Chander Sharma

16 July, 2014 9:39 am

Thank you for this article.
Thank you for this article. In Puenteareas where I live I have recently been chastised by two of my neighbours for not wearing a helmet (in town). I do use one when cycling on main roads between towns of course. It is a concern that because of the confusion amongst locals we could see a reduction in local cycling within the adult population here, which is ironic because this town has strong associations with professional cycling and hosted stage starts of the Vuelta in 2011 and 2012. Furthermore, if adults reduce their leisure cycling then this may affect how often they wish to accompany children. All this is conjecture of course, but my gut reaction is that enforcing helmet use does more harm than good.


17 July, 2014 1:16 pm

Thanks for your comment. It

Thanks for your comment. It is very unclear at the moment where the boundaries are. I also wonder about the children who cycle round our estate. I can't imagine them investing in or wearing a helmet. It will be a real pity if they stop cycling instead. I have no doubt that it will stop some people. A shame for them and the environment. 

Ian McLean

2 August, 2014 10:07 am

Adults older than 16 must
Adults older than 16 must wear a helmet outside of city centres but are exempt during periods of excessive heat, on steep hills or if they are professional cyclists.

I read this excerpt from your article and noted the words “outside of city centres” and wondered if adults must wear helmets when riding bikes in villages, towns, urbanisations, and other built up areas. The definition of ‘city’ may need more explaining or rules. Yea I am sorry more rules…..


5 August, 2014 8:29 am

Thanks for your comment. The

Thanks for your comment. The rules seem far from clear and that is perhaps evident in the different practices you notice everywhere. The ruling on city centres was the result of cities like Barcelona and Madrid having cycle hire schemes. Best just to wear one I think to avoid the possibility of a fine. 

Margaret Gooch

2 August, 2014 4:54 pm

I live in a Spanish village
I live in a Spanish village of about 2K people. Over half Spanish. The only people who wear cycle helmets are the serious bikers but the village has many cyclists. Mostly Spanish. Elderly and Young. They do not wear helmets, they ride bikes at night without lights and often without a reflector and wearing dark clothes. They ride on the wrong side of the road, the wrong way up one way streets and in general, do not obey any law of the road. I cycle on the right hand side observe one ways and traffic lights and do not cycle after dark. I do not wear a helmet. Bet I know who it will be if anyone gets fined. I wonder why helmets should only be considered necessary in the country, surely city cycling is more dangerous.


5 August, 2014 8:34 am

I don’t think the practices

I don't think the practices you describe are just confined to your village! I have noticed one or two children now wearing them around our estate but, in most cases, they are continuing to cycle round helmet free. Elsewhere I am still seeing many people without helmets. 

It will without a doubt stop some people from cycling. My son (who received the fine) did continue for a while – with helmet – but as the temperature has increased he's stopped cycling. The helmet has definitely contributed. As with all things, it's finding the right balance. 

Julian B

10 September, 2014 8:10 am

I am following this issue
I am following this issue with great interest as myself and a friend are riding across Spain (San Sevastian – Gibraltar) next year. We intend to stay off busy/fast trafficked roads as much as possible – it would seem that the current compromise law effectively allows you not to wear a helmet as surely the very lowest concentrations of Police (and thus enforcement) are in rural areas/low population areas?


10 September, 2014 8:30 am

Dear Julian

Dear Julian

Sounds wonderful, enjoy your journey. Perhaps you would like to write something for our website about your experience of cycling in Spain on your return? 

I suppose it is always a case of weighing up the possible fine with your own preferences and views on safety. The laws seem so difficult to interpret that I think you could still be doing what you think to be correct and get a fine. Unless you are prepared to wear a helmet all the time, there seems to be no 100% certainty of not being fined anyway. 

John Eadie

11 November, 2014 1:50 pm

Do cyclists in Spain have to
Do cyclists in Spain have to follow the traffic laws of all other road users E.G. cars,vans, trucks etc


12 November, 2014 9:47 am

Hi John

Hi John

I'm not an expert in cycle laws in Spain and would suggest that for a specific query you approach a local bicycle outlet where there might be a cycling expert. However, I would suggest that many of the laws are shared between bicycles and other forms of transport, but some are specific to bicycles. For example the rules around driving when you've been drinking are the same but there are times when cycles can be ridden in places where other forms of transport can't. 

Jeffrey Pellin

1 June, 2015 2:04 pm


My wife and I are keen leisure cyclists about to have a holiday including cycling around the Segura. In the UK we always wear helmets, and do the same abroard where possible – we will take our own for this trip.

Although helmets cant really protect you in a major accident, they do stop a minor incident becoming a serious injury. Mostly (thank goodness) those are what cyclists experience – minor incidents that just cause a fall onto a hard surface or kerb – often caused by thoughtless drivers or pedestrians. Wearing a helmet seems a simple thing to do to protect from concussion or a fractured skull.

Suzanne O'Connell

2 June, 2015 7:50 am

Hi Jeffrey

Hi Jeffrey

Thank you very much for your comments and the important point you make. 

Bryan Bowlowski

9 July, 2015 1:25 pm

Hi, can you post an official
Hi, can you post an official link to the law please. All the Spanish laws are published online. If you don’t have a link, do you know the name and date of the law?

Suzanne O'Connell

15 July, 2015 10:09 am

Hi Bryan

Hi Bryan

I believe this is the law. Ley 6/2014 modificando la Ley sobre Tráfico, Circulación de Vehículos a Motor y Seguridad Vial 339/1990. 


4 August, 2015 9:51 pm

Guess I’ll be taking two
Guess I’ll be taking two months cycling round the coast of Italy instead then

John Parmele

26 August, 2015 8:14 pm

I’ve heard it may not be safe
I’ve heard it may not be safe biking along coastal roads along the Med. coast heading towards Barcelona due to robbers, some posing as police. Therefore, are the A-7 and AP-7 roads open to bicycling and would they be a safer and faster alternative, although less scenic? Thank you. Virginia Beach, VA USA

simone c

14 November, 2015 9:24 pm

I cycle in and out of town
I cycle in and out of town and never leave the house without my trusted helmet, the few times I have taken a fall, I have given my head a knock and am happy to say that having my helmet saved a more serious injury. Yes if we have a really bad collision if probably wont save our lives, but the everyday fall, why take the risk if cracking open your head if a simple helmet can prevent it


14 May, 2016 1:15 pm

I actually find my helmet
I actually find my helmet stops the sun baking my head, and pulls quite a lot of air in, so I prefer to wear it when it heats up!


9 July, 2016 1:20 pm

Some years ago I had an
Some years ago I had an operation after having a brain haemorrhage which occurred without any warning and would never dream of cycling without a helmet. Whether a helmet makes cycling safer I’m not sure but it must give some form of protection on smaller falls or collisions.

Michelle Holland

26 January, 2017 5:28 pm

I live in Soller, Mallorca
I live in Soller, Mallorca and have co- owned, and now work for the same company that rents bikes – road/MTB/ hybrids & electric. I am a keen cyclist and when time permits, enjoy MTB biking and road biking and ALWAYS wear a helmet at these times. However, I ride a hybrid to and from work, which is a 10 minute journey from home and on this trajectory I rarely wear a helmet. It was on this same route 3 months ago, that a motorist failed to stop at a give way sign and took me out in a side on collision. I was descending down the road and she hit from the side.
I went flying into the air and landed on the road, no more than a foot from the curb. I was knocked unconscious and badly dislocated my clavicular and fractured my acronium ( shoulder). Had I hit the curb with my head, I may have been killed instantly, or suffered brain damage. I have learnt my lesson and will be wearing a helmet at all times in future. We tend to believe it is safer to bike within a city, or village, than on inter urban roads but I disagree. Often, motorists just aren’t looking out for cyclists in cities, or villages. For the record, we provide helmets for all our renters and the irony is, it was normally only me that insisted on clients taking a helmet.

Suzanne O'Connell

31 January, 2017 9:06 am

Dear Michelle

Dear Michelle

Thank you very much for sharing this with us. Wearing a helmet can seem inconvenient and uncomfortable at times. Your story has really enforced the point that wearing a helmet can save your life. Hopefully you are now fully recovered and thanks again for putting it all in perspective. 

Ray Marsh

15 June, 2023 4:04 pm

Ref cycle helmets, two years ago I decided to take up cycling again and since then have had two falls, the first was not avoidable as I was riding in a pedestrian and cycle area when a young lad suddenly dashed out in front of me and hit my front wheel and although only travelling at around 8kph I hit the ground hard and my helmet definitely saved me from what could have been a lethal injury. My second fall was my fault as I saw a friend and looked over my shoulder to say hello, turned my handlebars too far and came down, Although I did not fall as hard my head hit the road with considerable force and I was concussed, again my helmet saved me from serious injury. I would advise everyone to wear a helmet in urban area as should you fall and hit your head on the edge of a kerb stone your skull could crack like an eggshell.

Seamus Crowe

29 January, 2024 10:48 am

Thanks for an informed account of the law in the Spain – very helpful it cleared up a misconception about ‘urban areas’.
There has never been a case for the wearing of helmets due to the extremely small number of head injuries from cycling compared with your average Saturday sports matches for instance or drunken nights out ending up in A&E.
My comment is that if helmets were to reduce injury why are car users not wearing them too.
The average cycle helmet test is to drop the helmet (weighted) from 1.2 meters to the floor to pass the test of safety. It is not worth tuppence if you are hit by a car? I have many years of dealing with governments road safety campaigns – the aim is not to scientifically improve the situation but to react to fear and emotions. Thus speeding campaigns are a proven waist of time.
It is worth noting too that you are not protecting the bone of your skull but the soft brain underneath. No helmet is capable of stopping the shock of a hard blow to the head.

Oscar Paoli

30 January, 2024 4:27 pm

Thank you for your comment, we will leave it for future readers to react on.
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Ábaco Advisers